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How to Oxyacetylene weld
Oxy-fuel welding of metal is commonly called oxyacetylene welding since acetylene is the predominant choice for a fuel, or often simply gas welding. In gas welding and cutting, the heat needed to melt the metal comes from a fuel gas burning with oxygen in a torch. The most common fuels are acetylene and LPG gas. Learning how to oxyacetylene weld is a relatavely easy process to master once you have learned the basic skills of setting up the equipment, the setting of pressures from fuel and oxygen bottles, and practiced the welding methods.
Oxy acetylene Welding
The flame is applied to the base metal and held until a small puddle of molten metal is formed. The puddle is moved along the path where the weld bead is desired. Usually, more metal is added to the puddle as it is moved along by means of dripping metal from a wire ("welding rod" or "filler rod") into the molten metal puddle. The force of the jet of flame issuing from the torch tip helps to manipulate the puddle. The amount of heat can be controlled by the distance of the flame from the metal, as well as the gas flow rate and nozzle size selected. There should be a bright incandescent spot on the molten puddle. When the puddle is correctly maintained, a sound weld will result.
The apparatus used in gas welding consists basically of an oxygen source and a fuel gas source (usually cylinders), two pressure regulators and two flexible hoses (one of each for each cylinder), and a torch. This sort of torch can also be used for soldering and brazing.
The regulators are attached one each to the fuel source and to the oxygen source. Most regulators have two gauges: one indicates the cylinder pressure when the valve is opened; the other indicates the pressure of the gas coming out of the regulator when the regulator is opened. This is the delivery pressure of the gas, which must be set for the current job. The gauges are calibrated to read correctly at 70 °F.
Welding hose is available in single-hose and double-hose lengths. Size is determined by the inside diameter, and the proper size to use depends on the type of work for which it is intended. Hose used for light work has a 3/16 or 1/4 inch inside diameter and one or two plies of fabric. For heavy-duty welding and cutting operations, use a hose with an inside diameter of 5/16 inch and three to five plies of fabric.
The torch is the part that the welder holds and manipulates to make the weld. It has two valves and two connections, one each for the fuel gas and the oxygen, a handle for the welder to grasp, a mixing chamber (set at an angle) where the fuel gas and oxygen mix, with a tip where the flame comes out.